Exodus 22

Property Rights

22 [a]If someone steals an ox or a sheep and slaughters it or sells it, he shall pay five oxen for the ox and four sheep for the sheep— [b]If the thief is [c]caught while [d]breaking in and is struck so that he dies, there will be no guilt for bloodshed on his account. If the sun has risen on him, there will be guilt for bloodshed on his account—A thief shall certainly make restitution; if he owns nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft. If what he stole is actually found alive in his [e]possession, whether an ox or a donkey or a sheep, he shall pay double.

“If someone lets a field or vineyard be grazed bare and lets his animal loose so that it grazes in another person’s field, he shall make restitution from the best of his own field and the best of his own vineyard.

“If a fire breaks out and spreads to thorn bushes, and stacked grain or the standing grain or the field itself is consumed, the one who started the fire must make restitution.

“If someone gives his neighbor money or goods to keep for him and it is stolen from the [f]neighbor’s house, if the thief is [g]caught, then the thief shall pay double. If the thief is not [h]caught, then the owner of the house shall [i]appear before [j]the judges, to determine whether he [k]laid his hands on his neighbor’s property. For every [l]breach of trust, whether it is for ox, for donkey, for sheep, for clothing, or for any lost thing about which one says, ‘This is it,’ the [m]case of both parties shall come before [n]the judges; he whom [o]the judges condemn shall pay double to his neighbor.

10 “If someone gives his neighbor a donkey, an ox, a sheep, or any animal to keep for him, and it dies or is injured or is driven away while no one is looking, 11 an oath before the Lord shall be [p]taken by the two of them [q]that he has not [r]laid a hand on his neighbor’s property; and its owner shall accept it, and he shall not be compelled to make restitution. 12 But if it is actually stolen from him, he shall make restitution to its owner. 13 If it is all torn to pieces, have him bring it as evidence; he shall not be compelled to make restitution for what has been torn to pieces.

14 “And if someone [s]borrows an animal from his neighbor, and it is injured or dies while its owner is not with it, he shall make full restitution. 15 If its owner is with it, the borrower shall not be compelled to make restitution. If it is hired, it [t]came by its hire.

Various Laws

16 “If a man seduces a virgin who is not [u]betrothed and sleeps with her, he must pay a [v]dowry for her to be his wife. 17 If her father absolutely refuses to give her to him, he shall [w]pay money equal to the dowry for virgins.

18 “You shall not allow a sorceress to live.

19 “Whoever has sexual intercourse with an animal must be put to death.

20 “He who sacrifices to [x]any god, other than to the Lord alone, shall be [y]utterly destroyed.

21 “You shall not oppress a stranger nor torment him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt. 22 You shall not oppress any widow or orphan. 23 If you oppress him at all, and if he does cry out to Me, I will assuredly hear his cry; 24 and My anger will be kindled, and I will kill you with the sword, and your wives shall become widows and your children fatherless.

25 “If you lend money to My people, to the poor [z]among you, you are not to [aa]act as a creditor to him; you shall not [ab]charge him interest. 26 If you ever seize your neighbor’s cloak as a pledge, you are to return it to him before the sun sets, 27 for that is his only covering; it is his cloak for his [ac]body. What else is he to sleep in? And it will come about that when he cries out to Me, I will listen to him, for I am gracious.

28 “You shall not [ad]curse God, nor curse a ruler of your people.

29 “You shall not hold back the offering from your entire harvest and your [ae]wine. The firstborn of your sons you shall give to Me. 30 You shall do the same with your oxen and with your sheep. It shall be with its mother for seven days; on the eighth day you shall give it to Me.

31 “You shall be holy people to Me, therefore you shall not eat any flesh torn to pieces in the field; you shall throw it to the dogs.


  1. Exodus 22:1 Ch 21:37 in Heb
  2. Exodus 22:2 Ch 22:1 in Heb
  3. Exodus 22:2 Lit found
  4. Exodus 22:2 I.e., at night; cf. v 3
  5. Exodus 22:4 Lit hand
  6. Exodus 22:7 Lit man’s
  7. Exodus 22:7 Lit found
  8. Exodus 22:8 Lit found
  9. Exodus 22:8 Lit approach to
  10. Exodus 22:8 Or God
  11. Exodus 22:8 Lit stretched his hand
  12. Exodus 22:9 Or matter of wrongdoing
  13. Exodus 22:9 Lit matter
  14. Exodus 22:9 Or God
  15. Exodus 22:9 Or God
  16. Exodus 22:11 Lit between the two
  17. Exodus 22:11 Lit if
  18. Exodus 22:11 Lit reached out his hand
  19. Exodus 22:14 Lit asks
  20. Exodus 22:15 I.e., the fee covers the loss
  21. Exodus 22:16 A betrothed couple was considered legally married, but did not yet live together
  22. Exodus 22:16 I.e., bride-price
  23. Exodus 22:17 Lit weigh out silver
  24. Exodus 22:20 Lit the gods
  25. Exodus 22:20 Lit put under the ban
  26. Exodus 22:25 Lit with
  27. Exodus 22:25 Lit be
  28. Exodus 22:25 Lit lay upon
  29. Exodus 22:27 Lit skin
  30. Exodus 22:28 Or revile
  31. Exodus 22:29 Lit juice